Bulletin of the National Speleological Society - ISSN 0146-9517
Volume 32 Number 4: 71-87 - October 1970

A publication of the National Speleological Society

Some Engineering Characteristics of Small Portable Electric Lights for Caving
William W. Varnedoe, Jr.


Various known parameters that affect the caving light are analyzed. The interaction of volume, weight, and cost is discussed with respect to length and brilliance of illumination. Lamps are discussed, and the factors of design life, operating voltage, wattage, and current are analyzed with respect to brilliance, expected operating life, battery drain, etc. Carbon-zince, manganese, mercury, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, silver-cadimum, lead-acid, and Edison batteries are compared with respect to their peculiarilites, energy per volume, energy per weight, and energy per unit cost. The interaction of battery and lamp is also discussed.

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